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Digital Water: the next step towards Water 4.0

About the blog

Richard J. Vestner
Dr Richard J. Vestner is a civil engineer with a PhD in advanced wastewater treatment and Senior Director at Bentley Systems.


  • Digital Water: the next step towards Water 4.0

Today, many digitally ambitious and mature water companies are investing in understanding and implementing H2O Digital Twins. However, the full potential of a Digital Twin is only reached within a Cyber-physical System. This can help water management reach the next level of digitalization and intelligent automation and further improve understanding, flexibility and efficiency within Connected Data Environments towards - what GARTNER calls - “Hyperautomation”. Here, a combination of advanced technologies is deployed to increasingly automate processes and augment humans.

What makes the difference?

If we look at the discrete manufacturing industry, where Industry 4.0 is established and already creates value for customers and corporates and isolate the essence of major 4.0 developments, it is a) connectivity and b) autonomy in Cyber-physical Systems (CPS).

A CPS is created, when a physical product, process or system is monitored and controlled by its specific Digital Twin. The ability to influence the system’s real behavior is possible through a deep intertwining of real and computational components, including models, sensors and actuators. Cyber-physical Systems deploy methods of Augmented Intelligence to achieve an advanced degree of autonomy (“self-X” capabilities) and to use information from a digital network across and beyond system boundaries. Think of weather forecasts or population dynamics. Hence, vertical and horizontal integration of a Cyber-physical Water System is key.

Technology openness and new business models with new actors in a digital ecosystem will help accelerate added value creation

How much of this can be transformed to the water industry?

Business and process environments in the water industry can hardly be compared with ideal conditions in a smart factory, the degree of tasks that can be automated are lower than in discrete manufacturing and water systems can cover wide and remote areas. And next to an improvement of effectivity and efficiency, there are different drivers for implementation: while the manufacturing industry uses CPS to pursue individualization, improved adaptability and resilience are top priorities for water applications.

However, there are proven elements in Industry 4.0 that can serve as an inspiration for the water industry. As indicated above, strategic goals define, how far and how fast a full-blown 4.0 approach is applied to an end-user like a water infrastructure owner or operator. Integration of a Digital Twin into a CPS can federate Engineering Technology (ET), like numerical modeling tools, Information Technology (IT), e.g. networks and communication, and Operational Technology (OT), e.g. asset management and operational services. The resulting CPS is a strategic move to create the most sophisticated stage of prescriptive automation, in which the optimal decision based on real-time data and predictive analytics is presented or even executed, according to the user’s digital maturity and strategy.

Leapfrogging possible, but…

It is an ambitious goal to provide continuous information in real time about assets, processes, systems and organizations and to (semi-) automate their behavior. As a rule, the implementation is therefore gradual, since the solutions have to be integrated and operated in the existing ET, IT and OT of the user. The key to success is the standardization and interoperability of solutions, the training of operating personnel, the development of best practice methods, etc. Here is space for digital integrators and other digital water ecosystems partners, which are crucial for building a powerful CPS.


Data management and analytics continue to have enormous growth potential in the water sector. Even offline simulations and data analysis are not mainstream, and many utilities and consultants are not yet fully materializing the investments in these technologies. However, these are the first steps to build transparency and knowledge with descriptive technologies and then evolve with advanced analytic tools to realize a Water 4.0 vision. Technology openness and new business models with new actors in a digital ecosystem will help accelerate added value creation. In any case, the water sector requires and deserves a sensible and acceptable approach.

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